On the example the apostle Paul set, for others to imitate
Please always get the latest version of this document, from the Bible Pages web site, via this address: www.biblepages.net/nm03.htm
This is regarding 1 Corinthians 4:16 and 11:1, Philippians 3:17, 1 Thessalonians 1:6 and 2 Thessalonians 3:7 and 9. A number of English bible-versions have in those verses wordings which could cause the readers to think that the apostle Paul told the believers to “follow him as their leader”. But, a check of the Greek text of the New Testament shows that Paul did not do that. What he did, was that he told them to imitate him, that is, copy his example. – Believers should know what that example was. That is what this article is all about.
A note: This study contains translation-related comments. If you have been subjected to dogmas which claim that some particular bible-version has no errors and has all things right, make sure to read the article ms03.htm.
The nature of the example which Paul and his companions set.
This has to do with the six above-mentioned verses and their context. All might not even know that they refer to imitating, copying an example, because many bible-translators have put into those verses such words as “follow” and “followers."
Appendix 1 at the end of this study considers some linguistic details in those verses, but in short: In the Greek text, the relevant words are mimeomai, mimêtês and summimêtês which all refer to imitating, that is, copying an example.
Let us take a closer look at all of the five passages in question, one by one, including their context.
1 Corinthians 4:16, ‘Because of this, I urge you, be imitators of me’.
Before going to verse 16, let us first consider verse 6. Some bible-translators have put into that verse wordings which are more or less impossible to understand, such as “these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and Apollos for your sakes”. But, for instance the BBE gives a clearer translation, “I have taken Apollos and myself as examples of these things”, verse 6 and “so my desire is that you take me as your example” (verse 16). In short: Paul was talking about the example which he and Apollos had set.
Then there is verse 16, where many bible-versions have such wordings as “why I beseech you, be you followers of me”. – The meaning of the Greek text is more like this:
1 Corinthians 4:16 Because of this, I urge you, be imitators of me. (LIT)
“Because of this” – because of what? And, really what were the believers to imitate?
Here is some of the context, as the BBE has it.
1 Corinthians 4: […] 6 My brothers, it is because of you that I have taken Apollos and myself as examples of these things, so that in us you might see that it is not wise to go farther than what is in the holy Writings, so that no one of you may be lifted up against his brother. 7 For who made you better than your brother? or what have you that has not been given to you? but if it has been given to you, what cause have you for pride, as if it had not been given to you? 8 For even now you are full, even now you have wealth, you have been made kings without us: truly, I would be glad if you were kings, so that we might be kings with you. 9 For it seems to me that God has put us the Apostles last of all, as men whose fate is death: for we are put on view to the world, and to angels, and to men. 10 We are made to seem foolish for Christ, but you are wise in Christ; we are feeble, but you are strong; you have glory, but we have shame. 11 Even to this hour we are without food, drink, and clothing, we are given blows and have no certain resting-place; 12 And with our hands we do the hardest work: when they give us curses we give blessings, when we undergo punishment we take it quietly; 13 When evil things are said about us we give gentle answers: we are made as the unclean things of the world, as that for which no one has any use, even till now. 14 I am not saying these things to put you to shame, but so that, as my dear children, you may see what is right. […] 16 So my desire is that you take me as your example. (BBE, highlighting added)
Please read the above-quoted verses, at least one more time, with care and with thought. One part of Paul’s example was humility, and his self-sacrificing way of serving others.
A part of this was that the apostle Paul supported himself, also in Corinth. He was a skilled worker, a tentmaker. Acts 18:1–3 shows that when he was in that town, he worked in that occupation. 1 Corinthians 19 records how he noted that he had not lived at the cost of others, and that he was not about to do that, either. Acts 20 records how he reminded the elders from Ephesus that they knew that he had always supported himself through his own manual work. 2 Thessalonians 3 shows that when Paul was in Thessalonica, he and his companions “worked night and day” so that they would not be a burden to anyone, and that they “did not eat anyone’s bread without paying for it”. (There is more on that passage, later in this study.)
Now, consider this: Why did Paul several times remind people about the example which he and his companions had set?
It appears that the reason for this was that after Paul’s departure from Corinth, things had gone bad. There had come forth deceivers who presented themselves as “apostles” or something similar. Some such men had set up themselves as “leaders” and even managed to make (at least some of) the believers pay them. Paul’s two letters to that town contain a number of clues and hints in regard to the men in question, but we do not know the details. The believers in Corinth of course knew what things and which persons Paul referred to. (A note: 1 Corinthians 5:9 shows that Paul had written to Corinth already before he wrote the letter which we call “1 Corinthians”.)
Before going to the other passages which mention this with “imitating”, let us first read what Paul said about the men who did not follow his example but acted in a different way. Paul had some pretty acid things to say about those deceivers. We read:
2 Corinthians 11:13 God’s messengers? They are counterfeits of the real thing, dishonest practitioners masquerading as the messengers of Christ. 14 Nor do their tactics surprise me when I consider how Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. 15 It is only to be expected that his agents shall have the appearance of ministers of righteousness—but they will get what they deserve in the end. 16 Once more, let me advise you not to look upon me as a fool. Yet if you do, then listen to what this “fool” has to make his little boast about. 17 I am not now speaking as the Lord commands me but as a fool in this business of boasting. 18 Since all the others are so proud of themselves, let me do a little boasting as well. 19 From your heights of wisdom I am sure you can smile tolerantly on a fool. 20 Oh, you’re tolerant all right! You don’t mind, do you, if a man takes away your liberty, spends your money, takes advantage of you, puts on airs or even smacks your face? 21 I am almost ashamed to say that I never did brave strong things like that to you. Yet in whatever particular they parade such confidence I (speaking as a fool, remember) can do the same. (PH72)
(In the following verses, Paul mentioned some of the sufferings he had gone through, in order to help others. See even chapter 12.)
As you can see, it is obvious that at least some of the believers in Corinth had allowed themselves to be deceived and used. Paul was in fact mocking them, because of this. Verse 20, “Oh, you’re tolerant all right! You don’t mind, do you, if a man takes away your liberty, spends your money, takes advantage of you, puts on airs or even smacks your face?”
Paul and his companions did not act that way. Their manner of life – their example – was totally different.
(Here, some might wonder about 2 Corinthians 11:8, because many bible-translators have put into that verse such wordings as “I robbed other churches, taking wages of them that I might minister unto you”. The article nm09.htm sorts out the translation and meaning of that verse and its context. The article om05.htm takes a closer look at the meaning of 1 Corinthians 9:12, 14, 17 and 18.)
1 Corinthians 11:1, ‘Be imitators of me, just as I am (an imitator) of the Anointed’.
Let us now consider the second passage which records how Paul told the believers in Corinth to copy his example. Here, the context is slightly different, but even in this case, Paul noted that he was not seeking his own profit.
1 Corinthians 10:32 Give no occasion to stumbling, whether to Jews, or Greeks, or the assembly of God. 33 Even as I also please all in all things; not seeking my own profit, but that of the many, that they may be saved. 1 Corinthians 11:1 Be my imitators, even as I also am of Christ. (DBY)
Please note that the words “be imitators of me”, 1 Corinthians 11:1, refer back to the preceding verse 1 Corinthians 10:33 where we see Paul stating that he was not proclaiming the Good Message for profit (money).
He told the believers in Corinth to imitate his example in that regard, as well as in other ways.
Philippians 3:17, ‘be imitators all together of me, brethren, and fix your eyes on those walking thus as you have us for a model’.
Philippians 3:17 records how Paul told the believers in Philippi to copy the example which he and his companions had set. Their example was in stark contrast with the manners of certain men “whose god was the belly” and who were after mundane things (verse 19).
Philippians 3:17 Be imitators all together of me, brethren, and fix your eyes on those walking thus as you have us for a model; 18 (for many walk of whom I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ: 19 whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and their glory in their shame, who mind earthly things) (DBY, highlighting added)
Note even verse 19. – Paul was not one “whose god was the belly”, nor was he after earthly things. Several New Testament passages show that a part of Paul’s example was that he did not live at other people’s cost. He and his companions supported themselves through their own manual work. They proclaimed the Good Message for free.
Still regarding verse 19 – it is not clear whom Paul referred to (he did not mention any names), but several passages in the NT indicate that there were men who were after earthly things and used “the Gospel” for their own profit. Paul repeatedly warned about men of that kind, and he told the believers to mark and avoid them and cast them out from their fellowships. The article ia10.htm has more on that matter, but even this present study considers one of the passages in question.
1 Thessalonians 1:6, ‘And you became imitators of us and of the Lord’.
Here, Paul was talking about people who actually did imitate the example which was set by Jesus, and also by Paul and his companions.
1 Thessalonians 1:1 Paul and Silvanus and Timotheus to the assembly of Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Grace to you and peace. 2 We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you at our prayers, 3 remembering unceasingly your work of faith, and labour of love, and enduring constancy of hope, of our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father; 4 knowing, brethren beloved by God, your election. 5 For our glad tidings were not with you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and in much assurance; even as ye know what we were among you for your sakes: 6 and ye became our imitators, and of the Lord, having accepted the word in much tribulation with joy of the Holy Spirit, 7 so that ye became models to all that believe in Macedonia and in Achaia: 8 for the word of the Lord sounded out from you, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but in every place your faith which is towards God has gone abroad, so that we have no need to say anything (DBY, highlighting added)
Some bible-translators have put into verse 6 such wordings as “you became followers of us”. But again, the Greek text talks about imitating, copying an example. As you can see, verses 6–8, the saints of the Thessalonica area worked and laboured and, it appears, “sounded forth” the Good Message even in other areas, so that Paul and his companions had “no need to say anything” (verse 7). Those believers did this, despite persecution and other troubles. By doing that, they copied the example of unselfish care for others, the example which Paul and his companions had set, just as Jesus had.
2 Thessalonians 3:7–9, ‘For you know in what way you should imitate us […] we made ourselves a model, for you to imitate’.
Again, a part of the example set by Paul and his companions, was that they did not “eat anyone’s bread without paying for it” and that they “worked night and day”, so that they would not be a burden to anyone. These words are found in his letter to the believers in Thessalonica.
2 Thessalonians 3:6 Now we command you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus the Anointed, to withdraw yourselves from every brother who leads an idle life, instead of living according to the instruction you received from us. 7 For you know in what way you should imitate us, because we did not behave disorderly among you, 8 nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it; rather, with labour and toil we worked night and day, so that we would not be a burden to any of you. 9 Not that we did not have the opportunity, but we made ourselves a model, for you to imitate. 10 Even when we were with you, we told you this: If someone does not want to work, neither let him eat. 11 But we hear that some among you are leading negligent lives, not working at all but being busybodies. 12 We charge and exhort such persons, by our Lord Jesus the Anointed, to work in a quiet fashion, and to eat their own bread. 13 So, brothers, keep on acting in an upright way. 14 But if someone does not give attention to what we have said in this letter, note that man and have no company with him, so that he may be ashamed. 15 Yet do not count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. (BPT)
Verses 7 and 8 speak their clear language. “For you know in what way you should imitate us, because we did not behave disorderly among you, nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it; rather, with labour and toil we worked night and day, so that we would not be a burden to any of you.”
Verses 8 and 9, “so that we would not be a burden to any of you—not that we did not have the opportunity” – this passage and its translation and meaning is discussed in more detail in appendix 2 at the end of this article. Even the meaning of the word “busybodies” in verse 11 is clarified there.
Verses 10 and onward: Paul said that all were to work. Please note that he did not state this as a “suggestion”, but as a specific commandment relayed from the Lord. Clarification: In the Greek text of verses 6 and 12, we find the verb parangellô whose primary meaning was “to pass on or transmit a message”. Paul wrote those things “in the name of our Lord Jesus the Anointed”, verse 6, and “by our Lord Jesus the Anointed”, verse 12. In other words: It was an instruction from Jesus that Paul in this way relayed to the believers in Thessalonica.
(Obviously, the instruction that all should work and support themselves, applied only to able-bodied people in their sound mind and in their working age. Work: In honest occupations for useful purposes. And yes, this applied even to elders. There are some notes on this, under the next heading.)
More: The above-quoted passage shows that Paul told the believers to mark and shun (keep away from) men who wanted to live at other people’s cost. They were to cast them out from their fellowships.
A note: We know that when Paul was imprisoned, he received some aid from certain believers. That was an altogether different matter, of course. And, it appears that he may have received aid even on some occasions when he was either sick or recovering from stonings or beatings so that he could not work.
Please understand that many bible-translators – churchmen working for churches – have “adjusted” a number of New Testament passages, to their own (financial) benefit. For more on this, see the “recommended reading” section at the end of this article.
Acts 20 – Paul’s spoke to the elders from Ephesus, and told them to follow his example in regard to certain things.
When Paul was on his way to Jerusalem, knowing that he would imprisoned there, he made a stop in Miletus and sent for the elders from Ephesus and asked them to come to meet him. (Earlier, he had stayed and lived a longer time in Ephesus.) He reminded those elders that they knew the example he had set, how he had acted. At the same time, he warned about men who would act in a different way.
Acts 20:17 From Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called the elders of the assembly. 18 And when they had come to him, he said to them, You are familiar with, from the day when I arrived in Asia, after what manner I lived among you all the time, 19 serving the Lord with all humility […] 33 I have not coveted anyone’s silver or gold or clothes – 34 rather, as you yourselves know, these hands have provided for my needs and for those who were with me. 35 I have shown you in everything, that by working hard like this, we must support the infirm and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he said, “It is more blessed to give than to receive”. (BPT)
Verse 35, “I have shown you in everything” – that is, Paul had set an example, for those elders to copy. He noted, verses 34 and 35, that they knew that he had supported himself through manual work, and that he had even provided aid to people who could not support themselves. That is what the words “we must support the infirm” refer to (verse 35). In was in that connection, that he reminded those elders of the words of Jesus, “it is more blessed to give than to receive”. Please note that Paul had been on the giving side, so that he had even provided aid to people in need. He told those elders to copy his example, in that regard.
The article mm02.htm has more on Acts 20 and its translation. The article om01.htm sorts out the matter of “tithes” and “offerings”.
The apostle Paul told the believers to imitate (copy) the example which he and his companions had set when they went proclaiming the Good Message. A part of that example was their humble and self-sacrificing manner of serving others. They did not live at other people’s cost but instead worked so that they could support themselves. That example also included patient endurance during times of hardship and persecution. In short: Those men put their lives into the service of others. Unselfishly, without payment.
Some did not follow that example. Because of this, they could not produce fruit to God. Jesus had warned about this. The article hm08.htm has some notes on that matter.
Now, there are many other passages which are related to Paul’s example. All of them cannot be included here, but here is one of them, Philippians 4:9.
Philippians 4:8 Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is worthy of reverence, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is of good repute, if virtue is anything, if honor is anything, be always thinking about these. 9 Put in practice also what you have learned and received and heard and seen in me; and the God of peace shall be with you. (CT)
Even here, verse 9, Paul told believers to copy his example, to act as he had done. “Put in practice also what you have learned and received and heard and seen in me.”
By the way, regarding that chapter – some have cited the words “communicating” and “giving and receiving” which some translations have in verses 14 and 15, and claimed them to mean that people should give money to preachers. But what do those verses actually refer to? Because, several NT passages make it clear that when Paul was a free man and in health, he supported himself through his own manual work. Most probably, Philippians 4:14–16 with its context refers to some of the occasions when Paul was either imprisoned or sick so that he could not work. For more on this, see the article mm10.htm.
See also the “recommended reading” section, after the appendixes below.
Please send or mention the address to this site to others. You can also link to these pages. The address to the table of contents page is biblepages.net/hlist.htm
Appendix 1 – On the Greek words mimêtês, summimêtês and mimeomai which some have misleadingly translated as ‘follow’, in Paul’s epistles.
This has to do with 1 Corinthians 4:16 and 11:1, Philippians 3:17, 1 Thessalonians 1:6 and 2 Thessalonians 3:7 and 9. A number of English bible-versions have in those verses wordings which could cause the readers to think that the apostle Paul told the believers to “follow him as their leader”. But, a check of the Greek text of the New Testament shows that Paul did not do that. What he did, was that he urged them to copy the example which he and his companions had set.
In the Greek text of those verses, the relevant words are mimêtês, summimêtês and mimeomai. A number of bible-translators have rendered them as “following” or similar, but they all refer to “imitating” (copying an example).
The six above-mentioned verses and the example which they refer to, are discussed in more detail in the main part of this study, but they are quoted even here, along with the wordings in the Byzantine text. The corresponding words in the Greek and English texts are highlighted in bold style.
1 Corinthians 4:16 Parakalô oun humas mimêtai mou ginesthe. (BYZ)
1 Corinthians 4:16 I urge you, then, be imitators of me. (ESV01)
1 Corinthians 11:1 Mimêtai mou ginesthe kathôs kagô Christou. (BYZ)
1 Corinthians 11:1 Be imitators of me, as I am of Christ. (ESV01)
Philippians 3:17 Summimêtai mou ginesthe adelphoi kai skopeite tous houtôs peripatountas kathôs echete tupon hêmas. (BYZ)
Philippians 3:17 Brothers, join in imitating me, and keep your eyes on those who walk according to the example you have in us. (ESV01)
1 Thessalonians 1:6 Kai humeis mimêtai hêmôn egenêthête kai tou Kuriou dexamenoi ton logon en thlipsei pollê meta charas Pneumatos Hagiou. (BYZ)
1 Thessalonians 1:6 And you became imitators of us and of the Lord, for you received the word in much affliction, with the joy of the Holy Spirit (ESV01)
2 Thessalonians 3:7 Autoi gar oidate pôs dei mimeisthai hêmas hoti ouk êtaktêsamen en humin 8 oude dôrean arton ephagomen para tinos all en kopô kai mochthô nukta kai hêmeran ergazomenoi pros to mê epibarêsai tina humôn 9 ouch hoti ouk echomen exousian all hina heautous tupon dômen humin eis to mimeisthai hêmas 10 kai gar hote êmen pros humas touto parêngellomen humin hoti ei tis ou thelei ergazesthai mêde esthietô (BYZ)
2 Thessalonians 3:7 For you know how you ought to imitate us, because we were not idle when we were with you, 8 nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it, but with toil and labor we worked night and day, that we might not be a burden to any of you. 9 It was not because we do not have that right, a but to give you in ourselves an example to imitate. 10 For even when we were with you, we would give you this command: If anyone is not willing to work, let him not eat. (ESV01, note sign added)
Please note what Paul was saying here. The example which Paul and his companions set, verses 7 and 9, is explained in verse 8: “Nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it, but with toil and labor we worked night and day, that we might not be a burden to any of you”.
a Regarding the word “right” which the above-quoted ESV01 and a number of other bible-versions have in verse 9: That is a misleading translation. The apostle was not talking about any “right to be paid” but about something quite different. This has to do with the many-faceted old Greek word exousia. See appendix 2, below.
Appendix 2 – On the meaning and translation of the Greek text of 2 Thessalonians 3:9, including the word exousia.
Bible-translators have not always given the many-faceted old Greek noun exousia the meaning which is correct for the context.
The noun exousia was derived from the verb-like word construction exesti which was used in many different ways and meanings, such as “it is right”, “let”, “permissible”, “permitted”, “it is allowed”, “it is in one’s power”, “it is possible”. Here is what the Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon by Liddell and Scott (Clarendon Press, 1889) has on exesti (which is the root of the noun exousia):
it is allowed, it is in one’s power, is possible, c. inf., Hdt.: c. dat. pers. et inf., id=Hdt., attic; ἔξ. σοι ἀνδρὶ γενέσθαι Xen.:— c. acc. pers. et inf., Ar.:—part. neut. absol., ἐξόν since it was possible, Hdt., Aesch., etc.
So, the word exesti meant such things as “it is allowed”, “it is in one’s power”, “it is possible”. – Its derivative, the noun exousia, was used in many different meanings, such as “power”, “right”, “power of choice”, “liberty of doing as one pleases”, “permission”, “chance”, et cetera. Thayer’s Greek-English lexicon gives exousia such definitions as these:
1. power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases
a. leave or permission2. physical and mental power
a. the ability or strength with which one is endued, which he either possesses or exercises
3. the power of authority (influence) and of right (privilege)
a. leave or permission2. physical and mental power
a. the ability or strength with which one is endued, which he either possesses or exercises
3. the power of authority (influence) and of right (privilege)
(Those are the first three points in that lexicon entry.)
It is always the context that shows how the speaker or author used the noun exousia and meant it to be understood. In the case of 2 Thessalonians 3:9 which is quoted in the main part of this article and also below, it is obvious that Paul used that word in the meaning “chance”, “opportunity”. Clarification:
Verses 8 and 9, “so that we would not be a burden to any of you—not that we did not have the opportunity” – it appears that Paul was politely stating that he knew that the believers in Thessalonica were generous and would have permitted him and his companions to stay as guests, for free. Through this, they would have had the chance or opportunity (exousia) to be a “burden” for those people. But, Paul had received an instruction from the Lord, and he was relaying it to those believers – see verses 6–15 – and so, he and his companions set an example, by not living at the cost of others. Verse 8, “nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it; rather, with labour and toil we worked night and day, so that we would not be a burden to any of you”.
2 Thessalonians 3:6 Now we command you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus the Anointed, to withdraw yourselves from every brother who leads an idle life, instead of living according to the instruction you received from us. 7 For you know in what way you should imitate us, because we did not behave disorderly among you, 8 nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it; rather, with labour and toil we worked night and day, so that we would not be a burden to any of you. 9 Not that we did not have the opportunity, but we made ourselves a model, for you to imitate. 10 Even when we were with you, we told you this: If someone does not want to work, neither let him eat. 11 But we hear that some among you are leading negligent lives, not working at all but being busybodies. b 12 We charge and exhort such persons, by our Lord Jesus the Anointed, to work in a quiet fashion, and to eat their own bread. 13 So, brothers, keep on acting in an upright way. 14 But if someone does not give attention to what we have said in this letter, note that man and have no company with him, so that he may be ashamed. 15 Yet do not count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. (BPT)
(The meaning of verses 8 and 9 was clarified above this scripture-quote.)
A note regarding verse 10: Obviously, the instruction that all were to work and support themselves, applied to able-bodied people who were in working age and had a sound mind. Several other NT passages record how the believers were instructed to take care of those who for different reasons such as age, disability, sickness or poverty were not able to support or manage themselves.
One of the passages where Paul used the many-faceted word exousia in a similar way (tês exousias humôn, “this permission of yours”), is 1 Corinthians 9:12. In the case of 1 Corinthians 9:18, he used it in a different way, in the phrase tê exousia mou en tô euangeliô, “my authority in the Gospel”. Those verses and their context and meaning are discussed in the article om05.htm.
b Regarding the word “busybodies”, verse 11 – it is hard to form an English phrase that would carry over the “taste” of what Paul wrote in Greek. Some other translations have “meddlers”, “over-interested in the business of others”, or similar. But, those wordings do not really make it clear what the apostle Paul was saying. Clarification:
Paul often played with words. That is the case even here. This can be seen in the Greek text, but unfortunately, most of that is lost in translation. The word-play in verse 11 (Greek text):
Paul used the phrase ergazomenous alla periergazomenous – that is, he was contrasting the verbs ergazomai (ergô) and periergazomai (periergô).
- With the former, he referred to useful labour and work.
- With the latter, he referred to the opposite of useful work.
And so, one edition of the paraphrase WIL renders verse 11 this way:
2 Thessalonians 3:11 But we are informed that some among you are living as shirkers, mere busybodies, instead of busy at work”. (WIL)
See also the “recommended reading” section, below.
Recommended reading here at the Bible Pages, on related as well as other matters
An explanation of the short names for the bible-translations that are quoted or mentioned at this site. → hs09.htm
Acts 20:35 – what the apostle Paul meant when he reminded the elders from Ephesus that it is more blessed to give than to receive, and when he said to them, “I have shown you in everything, that by working hard like this, we must support the infirm”. → mm02.htm
How the saints took care of widows, the elderly, the sick and the needy. → nm07.htm
“Amateur bible students” versus “professional theologians”. The actual meaning of such words as “clergy”, “laity” and “scholar”. → is07.htm
On the meaning of 1 Corinthians 9:12, 14, 17 and 18. → om05.htm
What is the truth about tithing, the concept of giving “tithes” and “offerings” to a church? In connection with the New Covenant: Is tithing biblical or unbiblical, right or wrong? → om01.htm
On the translation and meaning of Galatians 6:6. Does it refer to joining in in good things as the Greek text indicates, or to sharing one’s goods with a preacher, as some translations have it? → im04.htm
On the translation and meaning of 1 Thessalonians 2:6. Was the apostle Paul talking about dignity, or about a right to be “burdensome”? → mm06.htm
A study on the phrases “the snare of the Devil” and “the love of money is the root of all evil”. How Jesus and the apostle Paul warned that those who proclaimed the Good Message, could become spiritually unfruitful. → hm08.htm
On 2 Corinthians 11:8, the translation “I robbed other churches, taking wages of them”. Did Paul really receive wages for his proclaiming work, as many bible-versions make it seem? → nm09.htm
On Philippians 4:14–16 and what the word “communicate” in that passage refers to. → mm10.htm
On the King James translation, the “authorised version”. The story behind king James’ bible, including the men who were involved in producing it. → ms03.htm
Is “servant leadership” a biblical concept? Did elders in the saints’ fellowships act as “leaders”? On what the Bible says about leadership among Jesus’ disciples. → ie03.htm
What does the Bible say about ordaining and ordination? In other words: How did the saints choose their elders? And, were those elders “ordained”, and did they function as “priests” of some kind? → ie02.htm
What does the Bible say about authority? Who has biblical, spiritual or religious authority on the human level? Who can speak for God? → hs06.htm
What the Bible says about excommunication, marking and avoiding. Also, some notes on the words and concepts “heresy” and “heretic”. → ia10.htm
On Titus 1:15 and the translation “to the pure all things are pure”, and what that verse really means and refers to. → ie05.htm
Jesus to his disciples, “For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also” (Luke 12:34 and Matthew 6:21). What did he mean? → ih12.htm
Table of contents – What’s new here? – Key-word index – Search function – Contact, comments, questions – Goal and purpose
Regarding quoting and sharing with others
Quoting: You can quote shorter passages in the articles at this site, provided that you mention the source by stating the full internet address (URL) to the article in question.
Sharing with others: You may not re-publish any part of the contents of this site, as a booklet, brochure or on the internet or in other ways; the author retains the copyright ©. But, you can send copies of the documents at this site, for instance to a friend. Often, the best way to do this is to send that person the internet address (URL) to the relevant page or pages. You can even give paper-copies to others, provided that you print the document in question in full, in the form it appears on this site, including the address and date at its end. Always get the very latest version, directly from this site.
For more on quoting and sharing with others, see the page hp03.htm.
This site is not connected to any church, sect or religious organisation but is totally non-denominational and non-sectarian. In other words, it looks at things from a biblical perspective, and not from a dogmatic one. Over time, its contents are revised. Readers are invited and welcome to write to the author with comments and questions, or to point out mistakes. For more on the goal and purpose of this site, and a contact address, see the page hp03.htm.
The address to this page is www.biblepages.net/nm03.htm
Please send or mention the address to this site to others. You can also link to these pages.
This document was created or modified 2015–01–23. ©